Transgender feamales in Malaysia, in the context of HIV and Islam: a qualitative study of stakeholders’ impressions

Transgender feamales in Malaysia, in the context of HIV and Islam: a qualitative study of stakeholders’ impressions



Internationally, one of many secret communities regarded as being at risky of obtaining HIV are generally transgender females, frequently a marginalised class. For the Malaysian perspective there has been a scarceness of printed study regarding transgender girls, a sensitive problem in a Muslim bulk land, in which Islam plays an influential part in environment. Plus, there is a paucity of investigation for how this type of troubles correlate to HIV reduction in transgender feamales in Malaysia.

Thus, the aim of this study is search the perceptions of stakeholders taking part in HIV avoidance policy in Malaysia towards transgender people, given the Islamic setting.


Deep interview comprise completed with stakeholders involved in HIV anticipation, Ministry of fitness, spiritual frontrunners and individuals existing with HIV, contains transgender females. Thirty five individuals had been employed utilizing purposive eating from June to December 2013 within Kuala Lumpur and related vicinities. Interview are directly, audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and employed a framework investigations.


Five main designs come forth through the qualitative information; Perceptions of Transgender girls as well as their place in environment; calling Transgender female; Islamic doctrine; ‘Cure’, ‘Correction’ last but not least, mark and Discrimination.

Dialogue: Islamic rulings about transgenderism are the reason offered by players chastising transgender women, whilst there are additionally extra gradual perceptions and area for debate. Persistent damaging conduct and stigma and discrimination developed a climate just where transgender females typically appear confident with non-governmental firms.


The situation of transgender ladies in Malaysia and HIV protection was an extremely sensitive and complicated ecosystem for all stakeholders, with the Muslim context and recent lawful system. Regardless of this apparent impasse, discover almost attainable areas that could be increased to optimize HIV anticipation companies as well conditions for transgender women in Malaysia.


Worldwide, on the list of principal teams known to be at perilous of getting HIV tend to be transgender ladies, described when it comes to these studies, as women designated the male sex at beginning but exactly who recognize on their own to be girls. Transgender lady typically symbolize a marginalised people and a ‘very high load group for HIV’ [1]. In a detailed meta-analysis and organized review conducted by Baral and peers, an assessment of the comparative HIV stress in transgender lady is carried out including 15 region which revealed a pooled HIV frequency of 19.1% in 11,066 people internationally as well possibilities proportion to be contaminated with HIV for transgender ladies in contrast to all grownups of a reproductive era got 48.8 [1]. The authors deduce that there’s an ‘urgent necessity of deterrence’ in transgender women in an organization which are often certainly not involved in national HIV surveillance and determine factors, such as involvement in perilous anal intercourse with guys increasing his or her vulnerability, in addition to mark and discrimination in healthcare options as limitations to opening HIV cures facilities [1]. Inside the UNAIDS protection space document, critical populations for instance transgender women can be not just hit by existing protection endeavors [2]. The indonesia Pacific Trans system for fitness actually in operation unmistakably claims ‘trans female as disproportionately afflicted with HIV—yet there are still inadequate programs or services geared to meet trans-specific demand’ [3]. Research has concluded that transgender women are at improved danger of HIV with things, including risky erectile behaviour, business sexual intercourse get the job done and stigma and discrimination [4]. Operario and fellow workers performed a meta-analysis and discovered the frequency of HIV was actually larger in transgender feminine love-making professionals than transgender ladies who wouldn’t do intercourse services, 27.3percent and 14.7% respectively [5].

Furthermore, Transgender girls commonly are at issues or have actually a top weight of medical issues except that HIV just like psychological issues and compound neglect [6], or persistent social discrimination which might create a shield to obtaining health care [7]. It’s the case throughout the world along with the Asia-Pacific part in nations like for example, Malaysia [8].